Top 10 Conceptual Questions and Answers for Data Analytics Interviews
If you are planning to land a job in the domain of data analytics, this article is for you. In this article, we are going to talk about the Top 10 Conceptual Questions asked in Data Analytics Interviews. After reading this entire article you can easily pass your first data analytics job interview and get your dream job. Now, let’s jump into our topic.
Who is a Data Analyst and What does a Data Analyst do?
A Data Analyst is a person who analyzes data. When a Data Analyst is given business-level data, he takes out some information from it, which is very useful for the company’s growth and plans. Otherwise, it is very difficult to get that information. He presents that information in this way to the top management, owners, or decision makers of that company so that they understand what is going on in that company’s department or the overall company. And they can make some decisions that can improve the performance of the company and some activities which are hampering the performance of the company, they can stop those activities.
The First Question is what are the different steps involved in a Data Analytics Project?
The various steps involved in any common analytics project are as follows. You start with understanding the business problem here. You define the organizational goals and the plan for a lucrative solution. After that, you start collecting data. Now, you must gather the right data from various sources and other information based on your priorities. The third step is cleaning data.
Over here you clean the data by removing unwanted, redundant, and missing values and make it ready for analysis. After the cleaning process is done, you start exploring and analyzing your data. You can do this by using data visualizations, business intelligence tools, data mining techniques and predictive modeling to analyze your data. Finally, the last step is interpreting the results. You interpret the result to find out hidden patterns and future trends and gain insights. So these are all the steps.
The Second Question is what are the key differences between Data Analysis and Data Mining?
Talking about Data analysis involves the process of cleaning, organizing, and using data to draw meaningful insights. In other words, it’s like cleaning up a messy room. You tidy up, organize stuff, and make sense of it all. The end goal of data analysis is to get valuable insights from the data. Also, data analysis produces results that are far more comprehensible to a variety of audiences.
Whereas data mining is used to search for hidden patterns in the data in simple words data mining is like being a detective in a treasure hunt. Now, let me explain this in terms of projects. A good example of a data analytics project could be predicting the price of diamonds here. You can perform exploratory data analysis of a data set using Python libraries such as pandas matplotlib and seaborn to explore the data set of diamonds understanding how different features of the diamond like carrot cut color, etc.
Determining the price of the diamond is what your problem statement would be specific to data mining. Let’s say you pick up a Kaggle user’s data set to analyze the preferences of Indians in investing their money. The idea would be to identify hidden patterns like which gender is likely to pick specific investment options like mutual funds, fixed deposits, government bonds Etc. The data set also contains the age of the individual. You can use it to know the bias of younger and older people for investing their money.
The Third Question is what does Data Validation explain different types of Data Validation Techniques for this?
Let’s understand what data validation is. It is a process of ensuring that data is accurate, consistent and meets the required quality standards in simple words. It’s like a set of checks and tests that data goes through to verify its reliability and integrity. Now, many types of data validation techniques are used today. One of them being field-level validation field level. Validation is done across each of the fields to ensure that there are no errors in the data entered by the user. Think of this like a spell checker for individual words.
Another type is form-level validation form level validation is done when the user completes working with the form, but before the information is saved in the context of form-level data validation a form typically refers to a structured input interface or a document that collects and organizes data from users and form level validation is like reviewing the whole form to make sure it’s complete and make sense before submitting it like proofreading a job application. Next is data-saving validation. This form of validation takes place when the file or the database record is being saved. This is like checking for errors right before you save a document or record ensuring everything is in the right format.
Finally, search criteria validation search criteria. Validation is used to check whether valid results are returned when the user is looking for something. Think of this using a search engine where you are making sure your search terms are clear and will give you the right result when you look for something online. So this is a basic idea about different types of data validation techniques.
The Fourth Question is what are Outliers and how do you Detect and Treat Outliers?
Let’s understand what an outlier is: the first outlier is an observation in a given data set that lies far from the rest of the observations. That means an outlier is vastly larger or smaller than the remaining values in the set in simple words. Outliers are extreme. values that might not match with the rest of the data points. Now how do you detect outliers? Well to detect outliers, there are quite a few ways. The first one is a box plot. So we know that while using a box plot, we can easily find outliers. The second technique is the Z score and then there’s the interquartile range. So these are the techniques to detect outliers.
Now to treat outliers. The first thing you can do is drop them where you can just delete all the records that contain outliers. The second method is capping outliers data. The third method is assigning a new value. You can assign the mean median or some other appropriate value to it over here. The fourth thing you can do is just try a new transformation like normalization. So that is all about outliers.
The Fifth Question is what are the different types of Sampling Techniques to understand this?
Let’s first understand that sampling is a statistical method to select a subset of data from an entire data set to estimate the characteristics of the whole population. What this essentially means is that in sampling you take a part of the entire dataset and try to analyze only that part and based on the results of that particular sample you will derive a conclusion for the entire dataset.
Now for the different types of sampling techniques, we have simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and judgmental sampling. You can read about these various sampling techniques from this.
The Sixth Question is what is Hypothesis Testing?
Hypothesis testing is a form of statistical inference that uses data from a sample to conclude a population parameter or a population probability distribution. To perform hypothesis testing, first, a tentative assumption is made about the parameter. This assumption is called the null hypothesis and is denoted by H naught and then there is an alternate hypothesis called HA.
The Seventh Question is what is the Normal Distribution?
A normal distribution also known as a Gaussian distribution or bell curve is a fundamental concept in statistics and data analysis. It represents a specific type of probability distribution that is characterized by a symmetric bell-shaped curve. Let me double-click on these characteristics. The first is symmetry. The normal distribution curve is perfectly symmetrical with the mean median and mode all being at the center. Talking about shape, the normal distribution forms a bell-shaped curve with the majority of data points concentrated near the mean and progressively fewer data points as you move away from the mean.
Normal distribution is defined by two parameters: the mean which represents the central value and the standard deviation which measures the spread of dispersion of the data. Talking about the spread of data approximately 68% of the data falls within one standard deviation from the mean, 95% within two standard deviations, and 99.7% of the data lies between three standard deviations. Normal distributions are vital in data analysis because many natural phenomena and human-made processes tend to follow this pattern. Understanding and identifying normal distributions is crucial for various statistical tests, hypothesis testing, and making predictions in fields like finance, quality control, and scientific research.
The Eighth Question is what is the difference between Univariate, Bivariate, and Multivariate Data?
First, let’s understand what these mean. Univariate data is like looking at one thing at a time. It’s when you are only interested in one variable or one aspect of something. For example, if you are only thinking about people’s height and nothing else, univariate data.
Bivariate is like looking at two things together in bivariate data. You are interested in how two different things are related to each other. For example, if you are trying to figure out if there’s a connection between temperature and ice cream sales. That’s by variate data.
Finally multivariate is like looking at many things all at once in multivariate data. You are not just focused on two things. You are studying three or more things together. For example, if you want to understand how the popularity of four different advertisements on a website depends on various factors like age, gender, and location, that’s multivariate data.
The Ninth Question is what are the differences between Underfitting and Overfitting?
As usual, we’ll first understand what underfitting and overfitting are: a statistical model or a machine learning algorithm is set to have underfitting when a model is too simple to capture data complexities in simple words. Underfitting is like having a tool that’s too basic for the job. This tool is too simple and doesn’t understand the tricky parts of the job.
It won’t work well and a statistical model is set to be overfitted when the model does not make accurate predictions on the test data when a model gets trained with too much data. It starts learning from the noise and inaccurate data entries in our data set in simple terms. Overfitting is like studying so much detail that you get confused and make mistakes.
The Tenth Question is what are the common problems that Data Analysts encounter during Analysis?
Well, the problem can be faced in four different steps first with the collection of data. This is because data can be scattered across different sources making it difficult to collect and consolidate this data. Moreover, data may be incomplete or inaccurate requiring cleaning and pre-processing. It may be sensitive data requiring careful handling and storage. The next challenge comes with storing this data. Data can be huge requiring scalable storage solutions plus it needs to be backed up and protected from loss or corruption. Not only that data needs to be accessible to authorized users while protecting it from unauthorized access.
There are specific challenges to processing data as well. Data can be complex and difficult to analyze, requiring specialized tools and skills along with that data processing can be time-consuming and computationally expensive and the results of data processing need to be interpreted and communicated effectively.
Finally data quality and governance data quality is essential for accurate and reliable analysis and data governance ensures that data is managed and used responsibly.
So that’s all we had for you in this article. If you have any more questions let us know in the comments and we’ll get back to you.
Good luck with your Interview!
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What is data analytics?
Data analytics involves interpreting and analyzing data to extract valuable insights and support decision-making.
What skills are essential for a data analytics role?
Key skills include proficiency in data manipulation, statistical analysis, data visualization, and knowledge of relevant tools like SQL, Excel, and data visualization software.
Explain the significance of exploratory data analysis (EDA).
EDA is crucial for understanding the characteristics of a dataset, identifying patterns, and uncovering outliers before applying advanced analytics or machine learning techniques.
How do you handle missing data in a dataset?
Handling missing data involves strategies like imputation (filling missing values with estimated ones) or excluding incomplete records, depending on the impact on analysis and available information.
What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics in data analytics?
Descriptive statistics summarize and describe the main features of a dataset, while inferential statistics make predictions or inferences about a population based on a sample of data.